Welcome to our treasure trove! The published papers listed here are the collective research products of our team — the scientists, students, and staff associated with this program and the animals we study. Note that the archive reaches all the way back to 1962, to encompass the early research of lab founder Dr. Ronald Schusterman. Click on any entry to view the corresponding article.


2020

Casey, C., Charrier, I., Mathevon, N., Nasr, C., Forman, P., and Reichmuth, C. 2020. The genesis of giants: behavioural ontogeny of male northern elephant seals. Animal Behavior, 166: 247-259, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2020.06.014.  

Strobel, S. M., Moore, B. A., Freeman, K. S., Murray, M. J., and Reichmuth, C. 2020. Adaptations for amphibious vision in sea otters (Enhydra lutris): structural and functional observations. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00359-020-01436-4.

Reichmuth, C., Sills, J. M., Brewer, A., Triggs, L., Ferguson, R.,  Ashe, E., and Williams, R. 2020. Behavioral assessment of in-air hearing range for the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens). Polar Biology, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-020-02667-6.

Casey, C. 2020. Acoustic coding of information in a complex social network: Identity signaling in Northern elephant seals. In Coding Strategies in Vertebrate Acoustic Communication (Aubin T & Mathevon N, Eds), pp. 247-269. Springer.

McHuron, E. A., Williams, T., Costa, D. P., Reichmuth, C. 2020. Contrasting whisker growth dynamics within the phocid lineage. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 634:231-236.


2019

Southall, B., Finneran, J., Reichmuth, C., Nachtigall, P., Ketten, D., Bowles, A., Ellison, W., Nowacek, D., and Tyack, P. 2019. Marine mammal noise exposure criteria: updated scientific recommendations for residual hearing effects. Aquatic Mammals, 45(2): 125-232.

Southall, B., Casey, C., Holt, M., Insley, S., and Reichmuth, C. 2019. High-amplitude vocalizations of male northern elephant seals and associated ambient noise on a breeding rookery. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 146(6): 4514-4524.

Reichmuth, C., Sills, J., Mulsow, J., and Ghoul, A. 2019. Long-term evidence of noise-induces permanent threshold shift in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 146(4): 2552-2561.

Goertz, C., Reichmuth, C., Thometz, N.M., Ziel, H., and Boveng, P L. 2019. Comparative health assessments of Alaskan ice seals. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 6(4): doi, 10.3389/fvets.2019.00004.


2018

Casey, C., Reichmuth, C., Costa, D.P., and Le Boeuf, B. 2018. The rise and fall of dialects in northern elephant seals. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 285(1892): 20182176.

Goetsch, C., Conners, M.G., Budge, S.M., Mitani, Y., Walker, W.A., Bromaghin, J.F., Simmons, S.E., Reichmuth, C., and Costa, D.P. 2018. Energy-rich mesopelagic fishes revealed as a critical prey resource for a deep-diving predator using quantitative fatty acid signature analysis. Frontiers in Marine Science, 5(430), doi: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00430

Kienle, S.S., Hermann-Sorensen, H., Costa, D.P., Reichmuth, C., and Mehta, R.S. 2018. Comparative feeding strategies and kinematics in phocid seals: suction without specialized skull morphology. Journal of Experimental Biology, 221: jeb179424.

Strobel, S.M., Sills, J.M., Tinker, M.T., and Reichmuth,C. 2018. Active touch in sea otters: in-air and underwater texture discrimination thresholds and behavioral strategies for paws and vibrissae. Journal of Experimental Biology, 221: jeb181347.

Kaczmarek, J., Reichmuth, C., McDonald, B.I., Kristensen, J.H., Larson, J., Johansson, F., Sullivan, J.L., and Madsen, P.T. 2018. Drivers of the dive response in pinnipeds; apnea, submergence or temperature? Journal of Experimental Biology, 221: jeb176545.

Reichmuth, C. and Schusterman, R. 2018. In: Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior. J. Vonk, T.K. Schackelford (eds.). Springer International Publishing.

De Maio, L.M., Cook, P.F., Reichmuth, C., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2018. The evaluation of olfaction in stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and its relevance to domoic acid toxicosis. Aquatic Mammals, 44(3):231-238.


2017

Murphy, C.T., Reichmuth, C., Eberhardt, W.C., Calhoun, B.H., and Mann, D.A. 2017. Seal whiskers vibrate over broad frequencies during hydrodynamic tracking. Scientific Reports, DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-07676-w.

Reichmuth, C., Sills, J.M., and Ghoul, A. Psychophysical audiogram of a California sea lion listening for airborne tonal sounds in an acoustic chamber. 2017. Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, 30: 010001.

Mathevon, N., Casey, C., Reichmuth, C., and Charrier, I. 2017. Northern elephant seals memorize the rhythm and timbre of their rivals’ voices. Current Biology, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.06.035.

Houser, D.S., Yost, W., Burkard, R., Finneran, J.J., Reichmuth, C., and Mulsow, J. 2017. A review of the history, development and application of auditory weighting functions in humans and marine mammals. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 141(3): 1371-1413.

Sills, J.M., Southall, B.L., and Reichmuth, C. 2017. The influence of temporally varying noise from seismic air guns on the detection of underwater sounds by seals. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 141(2): 996-1008.


2016

Casey, C., Sills, J.M., and Reichmuth, C. 2016. Source level measurements for harbor seals and implications for estimating communication space. Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, 27: 010034.

Reichmuth, C., Ghoul, A., Sills, J.M., Rouse, A., and Southall, B.L. 2016. Low-frequency temporary threshold shift not observed in spotted or ringed seals exposed to single air gun impulses. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 140: 2646-2658.

Sills, J.M., and Reichmuth, C. 2016. Listening for signals in seismic noise: A case study of masking in Arctic seals. Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, 27: 010003.

Eberhardt, W.C., Wakefield, B.F., Murphy, C.T., Casey, C., Shakhsheer, Y., Calhoun, B.H., and Reichmuth, C. 2016. Development of an artificial sensor for hydrodynamic detection inspired by a seal’s whisker array. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 11:056011.

Cook, P.F., Reichmuth, C., Rouse, A., Dennison, S., Van Bonn, B., and Gulland, F. 2016. Natural exposure to domoic acid causes behavioral perseveration in Wild Sea lions: Neural underpinnings and diagnostic application. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 57: 95-105.

McHuron, E.A., Walcott, S.M., Zeligs, J., Skrovan, S., Costa, D.P. and Reichmuth, C. 2016. Whisker growth dynamics in two North Pacific pinnipeds: Implications for determining foraging ecology from stable isotope analysis. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 554:213-224.

Rouse, A.A., Cook, P.F., Large, E.W., and Reichmuth, C. 2016. Beat keeping in a sea lion as coupled oscillation: Implications for comparative understanding of human rhythm. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 10: 257.

Beltran, R.S., Peterson, S.H., McHuron, E.A., Reichmuth, C., Huckstadt, L.A., and Costa, D.P. 2016. Seals and sea lions are what they eat, plus what? Determination of trophic discrimination factors for seven pinniped species. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 30(9): 1115-1122.

Cunningham, K.A. and Reichmuth, C. 2016. High-frequency hearing in seals and sea lions. Hearing research, 331: 83-91.

Ghoul, A. and Reichmuth, C. 2016. Auditory sensitivity and masking profiles for the sea otter (Enhydra lutris). In: Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II, A.N. Popper and A. Hawkins (Eds), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 349-354.

Cunningham, K.A., Southall, B.L., and Reichmuth, C. 2016. Detection of complex sounds in quiet conditions by seals and sea lions. In: Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II, A.N. Popper and A. Hawkins (Eds), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 181-187.

Sills, J. M., Southall, B. L., and Reichmuth, C. 2016. Psychoacoustic studies of spotted (Phoca largha) and ringed (Pusa hispida) seals. In: Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II, A.N. Popper and A. Hawkins (Eds), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 1025-1030.


2015

Cook, P.F., Reichmuth, C., Rouse, A.A., Libby, L.A., Dennison, S.E., Carmichael, O.T., Kruse-Elliot, K.T., Bloom, J., Singh, B., Fravel, V.A., Barbosa, L., Stuppino, J.J., Van Bonn, W.G., Gulland, F., Ranganath, C. 2015. Algal toxin impairs sea lion memory and hippocampal connectivity, with implications for strandings. Science, 350(6267): 1545-1547.

Erbe, C., Reichmuth, C., Cunningham, K., Lucke, K., and Dooling, R. 2015. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 103(1-2): 15-38.

Casey, C., Charrier, I., Mathevon, N., and Reichmuth, C. 2015. Rival assessment among northern elephant seals: evidence of associative learning during male-male contests. Royal Society Open Science, 2: 150228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.150228

Murphy, C. T., Reichmuth, C., and Mann, D. 2015. Vibrissal sensitivity in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). The Journal of Experimental Biology, 218: 2463-2471.

Sills, J. M., Southall, B. L., and Reichmuth, C. 2015. Amphibious hearing in ringed seals (Pusa hispida): underwater audiograms, aerial audiograms, and critical ratio measurements. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 218: 2250-2259.

Beltran, R. S., Connolly Sadou, M., Condit, R., Peterson, S., Reichmuth, C., and Costa, D. P. 2015. Fine-scale whisker growth dynamics can be used to interpret temporal foraging information from stable isotope signatures. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 523: 243-253.


2014

Reichmuth, C. and Casey, C. 2014. Vocal learning in seals, sea lions, and walruses. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 28:1-6.

Ghoul, A. and Reichmuth, C. 2014. Hearing in sea otters (Enhydra lutris): audible frequencies determined from a controlled exposure approach. Aquatic Mammals, 40(3).

Cunningham, K. A., Southall, B. L., and Reichmuth, C. 2014. Auditory sensitivity of seals and sea lions in complex listening scenarios. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 136(6): 3410-3421.

Ghoul, A. and Reichmuth, C. 2014. Hearing in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris): Auditory profiles for an amphibious marine carnivore. Journal of Comparative Physiology A.

Connolly Sadou, M., Beltran, R. S., and Reichmuth, C. 2014. A Calibration Procedure for Measuring Pinniped Vibrissae Using Photogrammetry. Aquatic Mammals, 40(2): 213-218.

Cunningham, K. A., Hayes, S. A., Rub, A. M. W., and Reichmuth, C. 2014. Auditory detection of ultrasonic coded transmitters by seals and sea lions. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 135(4): 1978-1985.

Sills, J. M., Southall, B. L., and Reichmuth, C. 2014. Amphibious hearing in spotted seals (Phoca largha): underwater audiograms, aerial audiograms, and critical ratio measurements. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 217: 726-734.


2013

Cook, P., Rouse, A., Wilson, M., and Reichmuth, C. 2013. A California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) can keep the beat: motor entrainment to rhythmic auditory stimuli in a non vocal mimic. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 127(4):412-427.

Reichmuth, C., Holt, M. M., Mulsow, J., Sills, J. M., and Southall, B. L. 2013. Comparative assessment of amphibious hearing in pinnipeds. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 199: 491-507.

Mulsow, J. and Reichmuth, C. 2013. The binaural click-evoked auditory brainstem response of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 133(1).

Lindemann-Biolsi, K. L. and Reichmuth, C. 2013. Cross-modal transitivity in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Animal Cognition, 17(4): 879-890.


2012

Casey, C. B., Reichmuth, C., Southall, B.L., Charrier, I., Mathevon, N. 2012. Vocal signature of the male northern elephant seal. Canadian Acoustics, 40(3):40-41.

Reichmuth, C., Ghoul, A., and Southall, B.L. 2012. Temporal processing of low-frequency sounds by seals (L). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 132(4):2147-2150.

Holt, M. M., Ghoul, A., and Reichmuth, C. 2012. Temporal summation of airborne tones in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 132(5):3569-3575.

Reichmuth, C. 2012. Psychophysical studies of auditory masking in marine mammals: key concepts and new directions. In: The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life, A.N. Popper and A. Hawkins (Eds), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 23-27.

Mulsow, J., Reichmuth, C., Houser, D., and Finneran, J.J. 2012. Auditory evoked potential measurement of hearing sensitivity in pinnipeds. In: The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life, A.N. Popper and A. Hawkins (Eds), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 73-76.

Ghoul, A. and Reichmuth, C. 2012. Sound production and reception in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). In: The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life, A.N. Popper and A. Hawkins (Eds), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 157-159.

Reichmuth, C., Southall, B.L. 2012. Underwater hearing in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): expansion and interpretation of existing data. Marine Mammal Science, 28(2):358-363.


2011

Van Bonn, W., Montie, E., Dennison, S., Pussini, N., Cook, P., Greig, D., Barakos, J., Colegrove, K., and Gulland, F. 2011. First evidence of gas bubble disease in a live marine mammal: barotrauma in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 96:89-96.

Cook, P., Bernard, A., and Reichmuth, C. 2011. Which way did I go? Remote training of a spatial memory task to assess the effects of domoic acid exposure in stranded california sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Soundings, 36(2):16-19.

Mulsow, J., Reichmuth, C., Gulland, F., Rosen, D., Finneran, J. 2011. Aerial audiograms of several California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) measured using single and multiple simultaneous auditory steady-state response methods. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 214:1138-1147.

Cook, P., Reichmuth, C., Gulland, F. 2011. Rapid Behavioral diagnosis of domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions. Biology Letters, doi:10.1098/rsbl.2011.0127.


2010

Holt, M.M., Southall, B.L., Insley, S.J., and Schusterman, R.J. 2010. Call directionality and its significance in male northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris. Animal Behavior, 80(2010):351-361.

Nachtigall, P.E., Moore, P.W., Gisiner, R., and Reichmuth, C.J. 2010. Ronald J. Schusterman – Memoriam. Marine Mammal Science, 26(4):997-1001.

Schusterman, R.J. 2010. Pinniped psychobiology: The early years. Aquatic Mammals, 36(1), 84-110.

Lynn, B.L., Reichmuth, C., and Schusterman, R.J. 2010. Filial imprinting in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus). Aquatic Mammals, 36, 79-83.

Mulsow, J. and Reichmuth, C. 2010. Psychophysical and electrophysical aerial audiograms of a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 127(4):2692-2701.


2008

Reichmuth, C. 2008. Hearing in marine carnivores. Bioacoustics, 17(1-3): 89-92.

Mulsow, J., Reichmuth, C. 2008. Amplitude-versus-rate transfer functions to tone burst stimuli in the California sea lion Zalophus californianus. Bioacoustics, 17(1-3): 80-82.

Kastak, D. 2008. Effects of noise on seals and sea lions: laboratory approaches. Bioacoustics, 17(1-3): 169-171.

Nachtigall, P.E., Reichmuth, C., and Schusterman, R.J. 2008. Healthy stranded animals and laboratory research. Marine Mammal Science, 24(3):746-746.

Gulland, F.M.D., Nutter, F., Dixon, K., Calambokidis, J. Schorr, G., Barlow, J., Rowles, T., Wilkin, S. Spradlin, T., Gage, L. Mulsow, J., Reichmuth, C., Moore, M., Smith, J., Folkens, P., Hanser, S.F., Jang, S., and Baker, C.S. 2008. Health assessment, antibiotic treatment, and behavioral responses to herding efforts of a cow-calf pair of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the Sacramento River Delta, California. Aquatic Mammals, 34(2):182-192.

Schusterman, R.J. 2008. Vocal learning in mammals with special emphasis on pinnipeds. In: D.K. Oller & U. Gribel (Eds). The Evolution of Communicative Flexibility: Complexity, Creativity, and Adaptability in Human and Animal Communication. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 41-70.


2007

Southall, B.L., Bowles, A.E., Ellison, W.T., Finneran, J.J., Gentry, R.L., Greene, C.R. Jr., Kastak, D., Ketten, D.K., Miller, J.H., Nachtigall, P.E., Richardson, W.J., Thomas, J.A. and Tyack, P.L. 2007. Marine Mammal Noise Exposure Criteria: Initial Scientific Recommendations. Special Issue of Aquatic Mammals, 33(4): 412-522.

Schusterman, R.J. and Reichmuth, C. 2007. Novel sound production via contingency learning in the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens). Animal Cognition, 11:319-327.

Kastak, D., Reichmuth, C., Mulsow, J., Southall, B.L., Schusterman, R.J. 2007. Onset, growth, and recovery of in-air temporary threshold shift in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 122(5):2916-2924.

Houser, D.S., Crocker, D.E., Reichmuth, C., Mulsow, J., and Finneran, J.J. 2007. Auditory evoked potentials in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Aquatic Mammals, 33:110-121.

Reichmuth, C., Mulsow, J., Finneran, J.J., Houser, D.S., and Supin, A.Y. 2007. Measurement and response characteristics of auditory brainstem responses in pinnipeds. Aquatic Mammals, 33:132-150.

Mulsow, J. and Reichmuth, C. 2007. Electrophysiological assessment of temporal resolution in pinnipeds. Aquatic Mammals, 33:122-131.

Holt, M.M. and Schusterman, R.J. 2007. Spatial release from masking of aerial tones in pinnipeds. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 121:1219-1225.


2006

Lindemann, K.L., Reichmuth Kastak, C. and Schusterman, R.J. 2005. The role of learning in the production and comprehension of auditory signals by pinnipeds. Aquatic Mammals, 32:483-490.

Schusterman, R.J. 2005. Entanglements: the intertwined fates of whales and fisherman (book review). Aquatic Mammals, 32:114-115.


Holt, M.M., Schusterman, R.J., Kastak D., and Southall B.L. 2005. Localization of aerial puretones in pinnipeds. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 118: 3921-3926.

Southall, B.L., Schusterman, R.J., Kastak, D., Reichmuth Kastak, C. 2005. Reliability of underwater hearing thresholds in pinnipeds. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 6:243-249.

Kastak, D., Southall, B.L., Schusterman, R.J., and Reichmuth Kastak, C. 2005. Underwater temporary threshold shift in pinnipeds: effects of noise level and duration. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 118: 3154.


2004

Schusterman, R.J. 2004. Sperm whales: social evolution in the oceans (book review). Ethology, 110:496-499.

Holt, M.M., Schusterman, R.J., Southall, B.L., and Kastak, D. 2004. Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 115:2339-2345.

Schusterman, R.J., Kastak, D., Levenson, D.H., Reichmuth, C.J., and Southall, B.L. 2004. Pinniped sensory systems and the echolocation issue. In: Echolocation in Bats and Dolphins, J.A. Thomas, C. Moss, M. Vater (Eds), University of Chicago Press, 531-535.


2003

Schusterman, R.J., and Van Parijs, S. 2003. Pinniped vocal communication: an introduction. Aquatic Mammals, 29:202-213.

Southall, B.L., Schusterman, R.J., and Kastak, D. 2003. Acoustic communication ranges for northern elephant seals. Aquatic Mammals, 29:202-213.

Van Parijs and Schusterman, R.J. 2003. Aquatic Mammals: Special Issue on Vocal Communication in Pinnipeds. S. Van Parijs and R.J. Schusterman (Eds.), 29, 319 pp.

Southall, B.L., Schusterman, R.J., and Kastak, D. 2003. Auditory masking in three pinnipeds: aerial critical ratios and direct critical bandwidth measurements. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 114:1660-1666.

Schusterman, R.J., Reichmuth Kastak, C., and Kastak, D. 2003. Equivalence classification as an approach to social knowledge: from sea lions to simians. In: Animal Social Complexity: Intelligence, Culture, and Individualized Societies, F. B. M DeWaal and P.L. Tyack (Eds), Harvard University Press, pp. 179-206.


2002

Southall, K.D., Oliver, G.W., Lewis, J.W., Le Boeuf, B.J., Levenson, D.H., Southall, B.L. 2002. Visual pigment sensitivity in three deep diving marine mammals. Marine Mammal Science, 18(1):275-281.

Reichmuth Kastak, C. and Schusterman, R.J. 2002. Sea lions and equivalence: extending classes by exclusion. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 78:449-465.

Holt, M.M. and Schusterman, R.J. 2002. Seals, sequences and signal detection. Marine Mammal Science, 18:208-212.

Reichmuth Kastak, C. and Schusterman, R.J. 2002. Long-term memory for concepts in a California sea lion. Animal Cognition, 5:225-232.

Schusterman, R.J., Reichmuth Kastak, C., and Kastak, D. 2002. The cognitive sea lion: meaning and memory in the lab and in nature. In: The Cognitive Animal: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition, M. Bekoff, C. Allen, G. Burghardt (Eds), MIT Press, pp 217-228.

Schusterman, R.J. 2002. Mammals of the sea in science and culture (book review). Science, 297:59-60.

Kastak, D., and Schusterman, R.J. 2002. Changes in auditory sensitivity with depth in a free-diving California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 112:329-333.

Schusterman, R.J. and Kastak, D. 2002.  Problem solving and memory. In: Marine Mammals: An Evolutionary Approach, A.R. Hoelzel (Ed), Blackwells, pp. 371-387.


2001

Schusterman, R.J., Southall, B.L., Kastak, D., and Reichmuth Kastak, C. 2001. Pinniped vocal communication: form and function. Proceedings of the 17th International Congress on Acoustics, Volume IV. Rome, September 2-7.

Reichmuth Kastak, C., Schusterman, R.J., and Kastak, D. 2001. Equivalence classification in California sea lions using class-specific reinforcers. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 76:131-158.


2000

Schusterman, R.J. 2000. Pitching a fit. In: A Dolphin’s Smile: Exploring Emotions in Animals, M. Bekoff (Ed), Discovery Books.

Southall, B.L., Schusterman, R.J., and Kastak, D. 2000. Masking in three pinnipeds: Underwater, low-frequency critical ratios. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 108(3):1322-1326.

Schusterman, R.J., Reichmuth, C.J., and Kastak, D. 2000. How animals classify friends and foes. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9(1):1-6.

Schusterman, R.J., Kastak, D., Levenson, D.H., Reichmuth, C.J., and Southall, B.L. 2000. Why pinnipeds don’t echolocate. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 107(4):2256-2264.


1999

Kastak, D., Schusterman, R.J., Southall, B.L., and Reichmuth, C.J. 1999.  Underwater temporary threshold shift induced by octave-band noise in three species of pinniped. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 106(2):1142-1148.

Levenson, D.H. and Schusterman, R.J. 1999. Dark adaptation and visual sensitivity in shallow and deep-diving pinnipeds. Marine Mammal Science, 15(4):1303-1313.

Kastak, D. and Schusterman, R.J. 1999. In-air and underwater hearing sensitivity of a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 77(11):1751-1758.


1998

Kastak, D. and Schusterman, R.J. 1998. Low frequency amphibious hearing in pinnipeds: methods, measurements, noise, and ecology. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 103:2216-2228.

Schusterman, R.J. and Kastak, D. 1998. Functional equivalence in a California sea lion: relevance to social and communicative interactions. Animal Behavior, 55:1087-1095.


1997

Schusterman, R.J. and Gisiner, R. 1997. Pinnipeds, porpoises and parsimony: animal language research viewed from a bottom-up perspective. In: Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes and Animals: The Emperor’s New Clothes? State University of New York Press, Albany, New York, pp. 370-382.

Schusterman, R.J., Kastak, D., and Reichmuth, C.J. 1997. What’s in a name? Stimulus equivalence by any other name would smell as sweet. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 68(2):252-258.

Levenson, D.H. and Schusterman, R.J. 1997. Pupillometry in seals and sea lions: ecological implications. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 75:2050-2057.


1996

Kastak, D. and Schusterman, R.J. 1996. Temporary thresholds shift in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 100:1905-1908.


1995

Schusterman, R.J. and Kastak, D. 1995. There is no substitute for an experimental analysis of marine mammal cognition. Marine Mammal Science, 11(2):263-267.

Hanggi, E.B. and Schusterman, R.J. 1995. Cognition discrimination learning in a male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). In: Sensory Systems of Aquatic Mammals, R.A. Kastelein, J.A. Thomas, and P.E. Nactigall (Eds), De Spil Publishers, Woerden, Netherlands.

Kastak, D. and Schusterman, R.J. 1995. Aerial and underwater hearing thresholds for 100 Hz pure tones in two species of pinnipeds. In: Sensory Systems of Aquatic Mammals, R.A. Kastelein, J.A. Thomas, and P.E. Nactigall (Eds), De Spil Publishers, Woerden, Netherlands, pp. 71-79.

Schusterman, R.J., Kastak, D., and Reichmuth, C.J. 1995. Equivalence class formation and cross modal transfer: testing marine mammals. In: Sensory Systems of Aquatic Mammals, R.A. Kastelein, J.A. Thomas, and P.E. Nactigall (Eds), De Spil Publishers, Woerden, Netherlands, pp. 579-584.


1994

1994 Hanggi, E.B. and Schusterman, R.J. Underwater acoustic displays and individual variation in male harbor seals, Phoca vitulina. Animal Behavior, 48:1275-1283.

1994 Kastak, D. and Schusterman, R.J. Transfer of visual identity matching-to-sample in two California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Animal Learning and Behavior, 22(4):427-435.

1994 Schusterman, R.J. Review of The Sonar of Dolphins (W.W.L. Au). The Quarterly Review of Biology, 69:284-285.


1993

Schusterman, R.J., Gisiner, R., Grimm, B.K., and Hanggi, E.B. 1993. Behavior control by exclusion and attempts at establishing semanticity in marine mammals using match-to-sample paradigms. In: Language and Communication: Comparative Perspectives, H. Roitblat, L. Herman, and P. Nachtigall (Eds), Erlbaum, Hillsdale, New Jersey, pp. 249-274.

Schusterman, R.J. and Kastak, D. A. 1993. California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) is capable of forming equivalence relations. Psychological Record, 43:823-839.

Schusterman, R.J. Gisiner, R.G., and Hanggi, E.B. 1993. Remembering in California sea lions: using priming cues to facilitate language-like performance. Animal Learning and Behavior, 21:377-383.


1992

Kastak, D.A. and Schusterman, R.J. 1992. Comparative cognition in marine mammals: a clarification on match-to-sample tests. Marine Mammal Science, 8:414-417.

Gisiner, R. and Schusterman, R.J. 1992. Sequence, syntax and semantics: responses of a language trained sea lion (Zalophus californianus) to novel sign combinations. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 106:78-91.

Hanggi, E.B. and Schusterman, R.J. 1992. Underwater acoustic displays by male harbor seals (Phoca vitulina): initial results. In: Marine Mammal Sensory Systems, J.A. Thomas, R.A. Kastelein and Y.A. Supin (Eds), Plenum Press, New York.

Schusterman, R.J., Hanggi, E., and Gisiner, R. 1992. Acoustic signaling in mother-pup reunions, interspecies bonding, and affiliation by kinship in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). In: Marine Mammal Sensory Systems, J.A. Thomas, R.A. Kastelein and Y.A. Supin (Eds), Plenum Press, New York.

Gisiner, R. and Schusterman, R.J. 1992. Combinatorial relationships learned by a language trained sea lion. In: Marine Mammal Sensory Systems, J.A. Thomas, R.A. Kastelein and Y.A. Supin (Eds), Plenum Press, New York.

Schusterman, R.J., Gisiner, R., and Hanggi, E. 1992. Imprinting and other aspects of pinniped/human interactions. In: The Inevitable Bond, H. Davis and D. Balfour (Eds), Cambridge University Press, New York.


1991

Gisiner, R. and Schusterman, R.J. 1991. California sea lion pups play an active role in reunions with their mothers. Animal Behavior, 41:364-366.


1990

Schusterman, R.J. 1990. Stimulus equivalence and cross-modal perception: a testable model for demonstrating symbolic representations in bottlenose dolphins. In: Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans, J. Thomas and R. Kastelein (Eds), Plenum Press, New York.

Hanggi, E.B. and Schusterman, R.J. 1990. Kin recognition in captive California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 104:368-372.


1989

Schusterman, R.J. 1989. Marine mammal language and cognition research. Current: The Journal of Marine Education, 8:11.

Schusterman, R.J. and Gisiner, R. 1989. Please parse the sentence: animal cognition in the Procrustean bed of linguistics. Psychological Record, 39:3-18.


1988

Schusterman, R.J. and Gisiner, R. 1988. Animal language research: marine mammals re-enter the controversy. In: Intelligence and Evolutionary Biology, J. Jerison and I. Jerison (Eds), Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Schusterman, R.J. and Gisiner, R. 1988. Artificial language comprehension in dolphins and sea lions: the essential cognitive skills. Psychological Record, 38:311-348.

Schusterman, R.J. 1988. Reading animal minds. Contemporary Psychology, 33:487-489.

Schusterman, R.J. 1988. Language and counting in animals: stimulus classes and equivalence relations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 11:4.

Schusterman, R.J. 1988. Cognition and echolocation of dolphins. In: Animal Sonar: Processes and Performance, P. Nachtigall and P.W. Moore (Eds), Plenum Press, New York.


1987

Moore, P.W. and Schusterman, R.J. 1987. Audiometric assessment of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus). Marine Mammal Science, 3:31-53.


1986

Schusterman, R.J., Thomas, J.A., and Wood, F.G. (Eds). 1986. Dolphin Cognition and Behavior: A Comparative Approach, Lawrence Erlbaum Associaties, Hillside, New Jersey.

Schusterman, R.J. 1986. Cognition and intelligence of dolphins. In: Dolphin Cognition and Behavior: A Comparative Approach, Lawrence Erlbaum Associaties, Hillside, New Jersey.

Schusterman, R.J. and Krieger, K. 1986. Artificial language comprehension and size transposition by a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 100:348-355.


1984

Schusterman, R.J. and Krieger, K. 1984. California sea lions are capable of semantic comprehension. Psychological Record, 34:3-24.

Wartzok, D., Schusterman, R.J. and Gailey-Phipps, J. 1984. Seal echolocation? Nature, 308:753.


1981

Schusterman, R.J. 1981. Behavioral capabilities of seals and sea lions: a review of their hearing, visual, learning and diving skills. Psychological Record, 31:125-144.

Schusterman, R.J. 1981. Steller sea lion – Eumetopias jubatus. In: Handbook of Marine Mammals, Volume 1: The Walrus, Sea Lions, Fur Seals and Sea Otters, S.H. Ridgway and R.J. Harrison (Eds), Academic Press, London.

McGinnis, S.M. and Schusterman, R.J. 1981. Northern elephant seal – Mirounga angustirostris. In: Handbook of Marine Mammals, Volume 1: The Walrus, Sea Lions, Fur Seals and Sea Otters, S.H. Ridgway and R.J. Harrison (Eds), Academic Press, London.


1980

Schusterman, R.J. 1980. Behavioral methodology in echolocation by marine mammals. In: Animal Sonar Systems, R.G. Busnel and J. Fish (Eds), Plenum Press, New York.

Schusterman, R.J., Kersting, D.A., and Au, W.W.L. 1980.Stimulus control of echolocation pulses in Tursiops truncatus. In: Animal Sonar Systems, R.G. Busnel and J. Fish (Eds), Plenum Press, New York.

Schusterman, R.J., Kersting, D.A., and Au, W.W.L. 1980. Response bias and attention in discriminative echolocation by Tursiops truncatus. In: Animal Sonar Systems, R.G. Busnel and J. Fish (Eds), Plenum Press, New York.

Au, W.W.L, Schusterman, R.J. and Kersting, D.A. 1980. Sphere-cylinder discrimination via echolocation by Tursiops truncatus. In: Animal Sonar Systems, R.G. Busnel and J. Fish (Eds), Plenum Press, New York.


1978

Schusterman, R.J. 1978. Vocal communication in pinnipeds. In: Studies of Captive Wild Animals, H. Markowitz and V. Stevens (Eds), Nelson Hall, Chicago.

Schusterman, R.J. and Moore, P.W. 1978. The upper limit of underwater frequency discrimination in the California sea lion. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 63:1591-1595.


1977

Schusterman, R.J. 1977. Temporal patterning in sea lion barking (Zalophus californianus). Behavioral Biology, 20:404-408.


1976

Moore, P.W. and Schusterman, R.J. 1976. Discrimination of pure-tone intensities by a California sea lion. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 60:1405-1407.

Schusterman, R.J. 1976. California sea lion underwater auditory detection and variation of reinforcement schedules. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 59(4):997-1000.


1975

Schusterman, R.J. Pinniped sensory perception. In: Biology of the Seal, K. Ronald and A.W. Mansfield (Eds), ICES, Copenhagen.

Schusterman, R.J. and Johnson, B.W. Signal probability and response bias in California sea lions. Psychological Record, 25:39-45.

Schusterman, R.J., Barrett, B. and Moore, P.W. Detection of underwater signals by a California sea lion and a bottlenose porpoise: variation in the payoff matrix. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 57:1526-1532.

Heath, M.E. and Schusterman, R.J. “Displacement” sand-flipping in the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Behavioral Biology, 14:379-385.


1974

Schusterman, R.J. 1974. Auditory sensitivity of a California sea lion to airborne sound. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 56:1248-1251.

Schusterman, R.J. 1974. Low false-alarm rates in signal detection by marine mammals. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 55:845-848.


1973

Schusterman, R.J. 1973. A note comparing the visual acuity of dolphins with that of sea lions. Cetology, 15:1-2.

Schusterman, R.J. and Barrett, H.B. 1973. Amphibious nature of visual acuity in Asain “clawless” otters. Nature, 244:518-519.


1972

Schusterman, R.J. 1972. Visual acuity in pinnipeds. In: Behavior of Marine Animals, Volume 2: Vertebrates, B. Olla and H.E. Winn (Eds), Plenum Press, New York.

Kaplan, J. and Schusterman, R.J. 1972. Social preferences of mother and infant squirrel monkeys following different rearing experiences. Developmental Psychobiology, 5:53-59.

Schusterman, R.J., Balliet, R.F., and Nixon, J. 1972. Underwater audiogram of the California sea lion by the conditioned vocalization technique. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 17:339-350.


1971

Schusterman, R.J. and Balliet, R.F. 1971. Aerial and underwater visual acuity in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) as a function of luminance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 138:37-46.

Balliet, R.F., and Schusterman, R.J. 1971. Underwater and aerial visual acuity in the Asian “clawless” otter (Amblonyx cineria cineria). Nature, 234:305-306.


1970

Schusterman, R.J., Balliet, R.F., and St. John, S. 1970. Vocal displays underwater by the gray seal, harbor seal and Steller sea lion. Psychonomic Science, 18:303-305.

Schusterman, R.J. and Balliet, R.F. 1970. Visual acuity of the harbor seal and the Steller sea lion underwater. Nature, 226:563-564.

Schusterman, R.J. and Balliet, R.F. 1970. Conditioned vocalization as a technique for determining visual acuity thresholds in the seal lion. Science, 169:498-501.

Schusterman, R.J. and Gentry, R. 1970. Development of a fatted male phenomenon in California sea lions. Developmental Psychobiology, 4:333-338.


1969

Schusterman, R.J. and Sjoberg, A. 1969. Early behavior patterns of squirrel monkeys. In: Recent Advances in Primatology: Behavior. C.R. Carpenter (Ed), Krager, Basil, Switzerland.

Schusterman, R.J. and R.F. Balliet. 1969. Underwater barking by male sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Nature, 222:1179-1181.


1968

Schusterman, R.J. and Dawson, R.G. 1968. Barking, dominance, and territoriality in male sea lions. Science, 160:434-436.

Schusterman, R.J. 1968. Experimental laboratory studies of pinniped behavior. In: The Behavior and Physiology of Pinnipeds. R.J. Harrison, R.C. Hubbard, R.S. Peterson, C.E. Rice, and R.J. Schusterman (Eds), Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.


1967

Schusterman, R.J., Gentry, R., and Schmook, J. 1967. Underwater sound production by captive California sea lions. Zoologica, 52:21-24.

Schusterman, R.J. 1967. Attention shift and errorless reversal learning by the California sea lion. Science, 156:833-835.

Schusterman, R.J. 1967. Perception and determinants of underwater vocalization in the California sea lion. In: Les Systemes Sonars Amimaux, Biologie et Bionique, R.G. Busnel (Ed), Laboratoir de Physiologic Acoustique, Jouy-en-Josas, France.


1966

Schusterman, R.J. 1966. Underwater click vocalizations by a California sea lion: effects of visibility. Psychological Record, 16:129-136.

Schusterman, R.J. 1966. Serial discrimination-reversal learning with and without errors by the California sea lion. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 9:593-600.

Schusterman, R.J., and Thomas, T. 1966. Shape discrimination and transfer in the California sea lion. Psychonomic Science, 5:21-22 9.

Schusterman, R.J., Gentry, R., and Schmook, J. 1966. Underwater vocalizations by sea lions: social and mirror stimuli. Science, 154:540-542.

Sharpe, L.G., Otis, L.S., and Schusterman, R.J. 1966. Disruption of size discrimination in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) by LSD-25. Psychonomic Science, 7:103-104.


1965

Schusterman, R.J. and Feinstein, S.H. 1965. Shaping and discriminative control of underwater click vocalizations in a California sea lion. Science, 150:1743-1744.

Rice, C.E., Feinstein, S.H., and Schusterman, R.J. 1965. Echo-detection of the blind: size and distance factors. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70:246-251.

Schusterman, R.J. 1965. Orienting responses and underwater visual discrimination in the California sea lion. Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, 1:139-140.

Schusterman, R.J. 1965. Errorless discrimination-reversal learning in the California sea lion. Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, 1:141-142.

Schusterman, R.J., Kellogg, W.N. and Rice, C.E. 1965. Underwater visual discrimination by the California sea lion. Science, 150:1743-1744.


1964

Schusterman, R.J. 1964. Successive discrimination-reversal training and multiple discrimination training in one-trial learning by chimpanzees. Journal of Comparative Physiological Psychology, 58:153-156.

Berkson, G. and Schusterman, R.J. 1964. Reciprocal food sharing of gibbons. Primates, 5:1-10.

Schusterman, R.J. 1964. The activity of gibbons in a social group. Folia Primatologica, 2:161-170.

Schusterman, R.J. 1964. The effect of a manipulatory incentive on social interactions of rhesus monkeys. Animal Behavior, 12:416-419.

Schusterman, R.J. 1964. Strategies of normal and mentally retarded children under conditions of uncertain outcome. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 69:66-75.


1963

1963 Schusterman, R.J. and Bernstein, I.S. 1963. Response tendances in gibbons in single and double alternation tasks. Psychological Reports, 11:521-522.

Schusterman, R.J. 1963. The use of strategies in two-choice behavior of children and chimpanzees. Journal of the Comparative Physiological Psychology, 56:96-100.

Bernstein, I.S., Schusterman, R.J., and Sharpe, L.G. 1963. Comparison of rhesus monkey and gibbon responses to unfamiliar situations. Journal of Comparative Physiological Psychology, 56:914-916.


1962

Schusterman, R.J. 1962. Transfer effects of successive discrimination-reversal training in Chimpanzees. Science, 137:422-423.